Unreliable Narrator: Mastering the 8 Layers of Deceptive Storytelling

unreliable narrator

There’s nothing quite as exhilarating as realizing that the story you’re engrossed in has an unreliable narrator. This tantalizing narrative technique introduces an unexpected layer of complexity and intrigue to the plot, challenging the reader to untangle truth from deception. An unreliable narrator can transform a straightforward storyline into a labyrinth of mystery and suspense, where each revelation might just be another illusion. But what is an unreliable narrator, and why has this narrative tool become so popular in literature and film? In this exploration, we’ll delve into the world of unreliable narrators, highlighting its potential pitfalls and immense rewards, with a special nod to the ghostwriting domain.

What is an Unreliable Narrator?

At its core, an unreliable narrator is a character who tells a story but whose credibility is compromised. This could be due to a variety of reasons, ranging from deliberate deception or omission to a lack of self-awareness or even mental instability. The concept fundamentally challenges the notion of objective truth in storytelling, inviting readers or viewers to question the reality presented to them.

Such a character brings a unique dynamic to the narrative, as the audience is left to interpret and judge the story’s events. They must discern fact from fiction, often revisiting their initial perceptions as new information or perspectives are revealed. This complex relationship between the narrator, the narrative, and the audience creates a sense of engagement and intellectual stimulation that can make stories with unreliable narrators especially memorable.

Fundamentally, an unreliable narrator disrupts the comfortable, often passive experience of consuming a story. Instead, it prompts us to become active participants, constantly questioning, doubting, and reassessing what we think we know. This interaction generates a level of suspense and engagement that can elevate a story, making it resonate long after the last page is turned or the final credits roll.

Why Use an Unreliable Narrator?

So, why would a writer choose to use an unreliable narrator? What benefits can this narrative strategy offer? To answer these questions, we need to delve deeper into the elements that make a story engaging and impactful.

Unpredictability is a key factor that keeps audiences engaged in a narrative. When we can’t predict what will happen next, we become more invested in the story. The unreliable narrator is a master of unpredictability. With their distorted perception or dishonest narration, they can continuously surprise the audience, ensuring that the plot remains intriguing throughout.

Moreover, the unreliable narrator encourages active engagement. In a conventional narrative, audiences usually accept the narrated events at face value. However, when dealing with an unreliable narrator, audiences are prompted to think more critically about the events and characters. They must piece together the true narrative from the clues and contradictions presented, fostering a deeper connection with the story.

An unreliable narrator can also add depth to a character. Their unreliability often stems from personal issues like mental illness, trauma, or moral ambiguity. By giving audiences glimpses of these underlying issues, the writer can create a more rounded and intriguing character.

But perhaps most compelling is the way the unreliable narrator reflects the complexity of truth and perception. It prompts audiences to question their understanding of reality, echoing the subjective nature of our own experiences and perceptions. This deeper, more philosophical engagement can make stories with unreliable narrators more memorable and thought-provoking.

When is the Use of an Unreliable Narrator Appropriate and When is it Not?

Employing an unreliable narrator can significantly amplify the intrigue and depth of a story. However, this tool isn’t suitable for all narratives. Understanding when to use this device—and when not to—is crucial to delivering an impactful story.

In stories aiming to generate suspense, create surprise twists, or delve into the psyche of a complex character, an unreliable narrator can work wonders. These narratives thrive on uncertainty and reap the benefits of active audience engagement. Stories addressing subjective experiences, memory, or the nature of truth also benefit from this narrative style, as the unreliable narrator inherently challenges the concept of a singular, objective truth.

On the other hand, stories that require a clear, consistent perspective may not benefit from an unreliable narrator. For instance, narratives that aim to educate or inform, such as historical accounts or instructional texts, require a dependable voice. Similarly, stories focusing on external conflicts rather than internal dynamics might be better served by a reliable narrator. An unreliable narrator might also be inappropriate in narratives targeting audiences that prefer a more straightforward, less ambiguous storytelling style.

An important factor to consider is that the use of an unreliable narrator requires skillful execution. Poorly handled, it can lead to reader or viewer frustration, confusion, and a sense of being “tricked” rather than engaged. Thus, it’s essential to consider whether the narrative and the writer are equipped to handle this intricate tool.

Unreliable Narrator in Movies

The use of an unreliable narrator isn’t confined to the written word. Many filmmakers have harnessed this technique to deliver unforgettable cinematic experiences. Below, we will delve into 10 movies that masterfully use unreliable narrators to create engaging, suspenseful narratives.

  1. “Fight Club” (1999): David Fincher’s cult classic employs an unreliable narrator to stunning effect. As the protagonist’s mental stability unravels, the audience grapples with a narrative filled with disorienting distortions and revelations.
  2. “The Sixth Sense” (1999): M. Night Shyamalan’s masterpiece takes advantage of the unreliable narrator to craft one of cinema’s most memorable twist endings. Throughout the film, we’re led to perceive the world from Dr. Malcolm Crowe’s perspective, only to be startled by the reality in the final scenes.
  3. “Gone Girl” (2014): This psychological thriller relies on two unreliable narrators to weave a complicated tale of deception and manipulation. The dueling narratives of Nick and Amy Dunne keep the audience questioning who to believe.
  4. “Memento” (2000): Christopher Nolan’s mind-bending thriller uses the unreliability of Leonard, who suffers from anterograde amnesia, to build an intricate narrative that unfolds in a non-linear fashion, leaving the audience piecing together fragments of truth.
  5. “Shutter Island” (2010): In this Martin Scorsese-directed mystery, the unreliable narration stems from the troubled mental state of the protagonist, leaving audiences constantly guessing about the truth of Ashecliffe Hospital.
  6. “American Psycho” (2000): The film dives deep into the disturbed mind of Patrick Bateman, whose narration is as unreliable as it is chilling. The line between reality and Bateman’s violent delusions is masterfully blurred, unsettling viewers and prompting debate about the film’s events.
  7. “Rashomon” (1950): This seminal film by Akira Kurosawa offers four conflicting accounts of the same event, pioneering the use of unreliable narrators in cinema and exploring the subjective nature of truth.
  8. “A Beautiful Mind” (2001): The story of brilliant mathematician John Nash grapples with his schizophrenia through the use of an unreliable narrator, with reality only unfolding as Nash comes to terms with his condition.
  9. “The Usual Suspects” (1995): In this neo-noir film, the enigmatic Verbal Kint spins a complex web of tales, leaving audiences questioning the truth behind the infamous Keyser Söze.
  10. “Primal Fear” (1996): The film employs an unreliable narrator to craft a shocking twist ending. The defendant Aaron, initially portrayed as innocent and naïve, leaves both the audience and his lawyer questioning what is real.

Using an unreliable narrator can create enthralling narratives that keep audiences guessing. However, like any narrative tool, its effectiveness is dependent on skillful execution. The films listed above exemplify the power of this narrative device when handled with finesse.

Unreliable Narrator in Books

Similarly, books have long embraced the use of unreliable narrators to create intricate, captivating narratives. The following are nine books that use this technique to great effect.

  1. “The Catcher in the Rye” by J.D. Salinger: The teenage protagonist, Holden Caulfield, is an emblem of adolescent rebellion and confusion. His account of events is colored by his strong emotions and immature perspective.
  2. “Gone Girl” by Gillian Flynn: In this psychological thriller, husband and wife, Nick and Amy, narrate alternating chapters, both proving to be unreliable as their marriage unravels.
  3. “Fight Club” by Chuck Palahniuk: As in the film, the novel uses the unreliability of the protagonist’s narration to draw readers into a chaotic world of anarchy and rebellion.
  4. “Life of Pi” by Yann Martel: The story, narrated by Pi Patel, includes wild, fantastical elements that lead readers to question the veracity of his tale.
  5. “The Girl on the Train” by Paula Hawkins: The novel’s main character, Rachel, is a severe alcoholic, and her blackouts lead to significant gaps in her narrative.
  6. “Atonement” by Ian McEwan: Narrator Briony Tallis, in her pursuit of atonement, crafts a story that may or may not reflect the real events, leaving readers questioning her account.
  7. “American Psycho” by Bret Easton Ellis: Like its film adaptation, the novel uses Patrick Bateman’s unstable mental state to blur the line between reality and hallucination.
  8. “The Tell-Tale Heart” by Edgar Allan Poe: This short story’s narrator, who is trying to convince the reader of his sanity, vividly describes a murder he committed, creating an unsettling reading experience.
  9. “Rebecca” by Daphne du Maurier: The nameless narrator’s account of life at Manderley is skewed by her feelings of inferiority and paranoia, which color her perception of Rebecca and Maxim de Winter.

The art of employing an unreliable narrator in literature provides readers with an interactive reading experience, causing them to question and actively engage with the text. However, like in film, this narrative tool must be carefully handled to prevent it from becoming a source of reader frustration.

Pros and Cons of Using Unreliable Narrators

Unreliable narrators can be a powerful literary and cinematic tool when employed correctly. However, they also come with a set of potential pitfalls.


  1. Reader Engagement: The use of an unreliable narrator can engage readers in the narrative as they are prompted to question and investigate the narrative presented to them. This increases their active participation in deciphering the plot and characters.
  2. Richness and Depth: Unreliable narrators allow for the creation of complex and multi-faceted characters. Their flaws, biases, and unique perspectives contribute to the depth and richness of the narrative.
  3. Plot Twists and Surprises: Unreliable narrators can be used to introduce plot twists, making for exciting, unpredictable storytelling. When the reliability of the narrator is brought into question, it opens up numerous possibilities for shocking reveals and twists.


  1. Reader Confusion and Frustration: If not handled carefully, an unreliable narrator can lead to confusion and frustration. Readers might feel misled or cheated if the unreliability is not signaled or managed properly.
  2. Complexity in Writing: Writing from the perspective of an unreliable narrator requires skill and delicacy. Balancing between maintaining reader trust and introducing doubt can be challenging.
  3. Lack of Closure: Stories with unreliable narrators might not have definitive conclusions, as the truth is often obscured or subjective. This can be unsatisfying for some readers who prefer a clear resolution.

Unreliable narrators indeed bring a unique dynamic to storytelling, enriching it with their personal biases, flawed perceptions, and occasionally, deliberate deceptions. However, their use comes with a set of challenges and potential pitfalls that writers must navigate carefully.

Wrapping Up the Unpredictability: The Unreliable Narrator

From the winding alleys of mysteries to the unsettling corners of psychological thrillers, from the surreal landscapes of magical realism to the gritty terrains of hard-boiled noir, the unreliable narrator is a versatile and powerful storytelling tool. Employed adeptly, it can lend a story layers of complexity, intrigue, and emotional depth.

The use of an unreliable narrator invites readers to step beyond the traditional role of a passive recipient of the story, compelling them to become active participants in the unfolding narrative. As they navigate the labyrinth of unreliable narration, readers must parse truth from falsehood, appearance from reality, and memory from fabrication. This engaged reading experience can make the narrative more memorable and impactful.

However, as with all powerful tools, the unreliable narrator comes with its challenges. Misused, it can breed confusion and frustration, alienate readers, and weaken the narrative structure. Therefore, it’s crucial for writers to strike a balance—enough uncertainty to stir intrigue, but not so much as to obscure the narrative.

In the hands of a skillful writer, an unreliable narrator is not merely a teller of tales but an enigma to be decoded, a mystery intertwined with the larger narrative mystery. This narrative strategy, while requiring careful handling, opens up a wealth of storytelling possibilities, breathing life into narratives and delivering reading experiences that resonate, surprise, and provoke thought.

To borrow a quote from the book “The Things They Carried” by Tim O’Brien, an excellent example of the unreliable narrator, “A thing may happen and be a total lie; another thing may not happen and be truer than the truth.” Indeed, the unreliable narrator blurs the line between fact and fiction, challenging us to question, seek, and understand – a testament to the transformative power of storytelling.

“Life of Pi” by Yann Martel and “Gone Girl” by Gillian Flynn are other masterpieces in the realm of literature that utilize the concept of an unreliable narrator masterfully. These are must-reads for anyone interested in understanding this narrative technique better.

So, the next time you encounter an unreliable narrator, remember to enjoy the journey through the labyrinth of their narrative, and appreciate the layers of complexity they add to the story. After all, isn’t life itself a tale told by an unreliable narrator?

Richard Lowe
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Thank you for helping me understand this kind of narrator. Thanks a lot for sharing.

Fransic verso

When a storyteller can hook the readers, that is an amazing talent. something not easy to accomplish but very good. Interesting post and love that its also informative.


Its crazy where my head went when I first heard unreliable writer. Now it’s the only thing I want to be as a writer lol.


It is truly amazing how storytelling has the power to transform a narrative and engage readers. The technique adds layers of complexity that intrigue readers and make the story more interesting. However, using an unreliable narrator can be challenging. When handled with care, it can still be a powerful tool for writers.


Ah, this is so insightful! It takes a really clever writer to craft an unreliable narrator, and ti make it truly believable.


Shutter Island is a great example of an unreliable narrator! Especially with that shocker ending.


We had to read the Tell-tale Heart in high school, and then we went to see a theater production of it. The use of an unreliable narrator makes for a memorable story. The only other movies and books that you mention that I am familiar with include A Beautiful Mind, and Life of Pi. I would say that perhaps this isn’t my favorite form of storytelling, but now that I know what an unreliable narrator is, thanks to this article, I will be more willing seek out these types of stories.

Catherine Kay

Unreliable narrators add a captivating twist to storytelling! Mastering the art of deceptive storytelling with 8 layers opens up a world of intrigue and suspense.

Allison C

I loved this article because I have always had questions about an unreliable narrator. First, I was trying to think of movies that had unreliable narrators, and I thought of Memento as an example. Oddly, I have not read very many books with unreliable narrators, but yes, Rebecca was a fine example for me. I was so young when I read The Catcher In The Rye and The Tell-Tale Heart, and my teachers never introduced us to the convention of the unreliable narrator, so I don’t remember thinking about that when I read them both. Now I especially need to go back and reread The Tell-Tale Heart and check it out! Thank you for this!


I love a good unreliable narrator, and I particularly enjoyed reading Rebecca. Your straightforward explanation is going to help me explain this craft to my students, thank you!


Great insight on unreliable narrators! Loved your exploration of its use in literature and film. Can’t wait for more thought-provoking analyses!

Nayna Kanabar

Reading this post has highlighted to me the differences between the different types of narrators. It’s very interesting how you have explained it and demonstrated how it’s used in different types of books and films.

Jennifer Prince

I would definitely say that having an unreliable narrator is a unique spin. I never really thought about that before!

Gervin Khan

I have never read a book with an unreliable narrator and I am glad to learn more about them. Thank you!

Ntensibe Edgar

Ooohhhh….thank you for educating me on this kind of narrator. It will be so cool to deploy them in dialogues, of my writing.


I’m very intrigued by this kind of story. I’ve never read a book with an unreliable narrator before, and I think it sounds pretty darn great.